Iranian Journal of Neurology <p align="center">&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Indexed in</strong>, <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">PubMed</a>, PubMed Central</strong>, <strong><a href=";ISSN=*2008-384X" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ESCI (Web of Science)</a></strong>, Academic Keys, Cite Factor (Directory Indexing of International Research Journals), Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Directory of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI), Ebsco, Electronic Journals Library, Google Scholar, InfoBase Index, Islamic World Science Citation Center (ISC), LocatorPlus, Scientific Information Database (SID), Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory, Universal Impact Factor, WorldCat.</p> Tehran University of Medical Sciences en-US Iranian Journal of Neurology 2008-384X Occupational performance of individuals with Multiple Sclerosis based on disability level in Iran <p><strong>Background:</strong> Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common disease across the world as well as in Iran. Individuals with MS usually experience occupational performance problems that result in limitations in their daily life. This study aimed to determine the occupational performance of individuals with MS based on the disability level in Iran.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In this cross-sectional study, 50 individuals with MS (20 to 50 years old) were recruited through a convenience sampling strategy from different clinics in Arak City, Iran, during 2016-2017. The Persian versions of Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) were used to assess the status of occupational performance and level of disability. The data were analyzed using chi-square, Spearman's rank correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The total number of 248 occupations were identified as difficult to perform in the following areas: 125 (50.40%) in self-care, 58 (23.38%) in productivity, and 65 (26.20%) in leisure. In addition, the prioritized occupations (n = 149, median: 3, range: 1-4) had significant difference in the distribution of occupations compared with the non-prioritized occupations (P &lt; 0.0001) and the ratings for performances and satisfactions were generally low. There were significant differences between the occupational performance and level of EDSS.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings of current study suggest that individuals with MS suffer from widespread problems in the areas of occupational performance, particularly in self-care. The findings emphasize the need for identifying the problems of daily occupations in individuals with MS.</p> Leila Dehghan Fardin Faraji Hamid Dalvand Alireza Shamsoddini Mohammad Reza Hadian-Rasanani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-22 2019-01-22 Direct and indirect cost of managing Alzheimer’s disease in the Islamic Republic of Iran <p><strong>Background:</strong> Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects a large number of adults annually all around the world. The monetary cost of this disorder is huge. This study aims to estimate the cost of AD in Iran by considering stages of disease.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was designed from July to December 2017 on 300 AD cases who referred to the Iran Alzheimer’s Association, Tehran, Iran. To calculate costs at different stages of disease, patients were assigned into three groups, based on the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score. A list of medicines’ prices and health care service costs were prepared. Health care services’ cost was acquired from the book of “Relative value units of health care services in Iran” and the price of medicines was extracted from "Iran’s medicine triple prices list". Patients’ medical records and face to face interview with their caregivers were used for data collection. The perspective of present research was societal.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Annually, per person cost of AD in mild, moderate, and severe stages of disease were 434 United States dollars (USD), 1313 USD, and 2480 USD, respectively. Direct non-medical costs (DNMC) had the greatest share of total costs (near half of the whole costs) including 263 USD, 641 USD, and 1257 USD for mild, moderate, and severe stages, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The cost of AD in Iran is lower than the average cost of dementia in upper middle-income countries. In all stages, the biggest part of the cost is associated with patient care and nursing services because patients suffering from AD usually require specialized cares.</p> Zahra Aajami Abbas Kebriaeezadeh Shekoufeh Nikfar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-16 2019-02-16 Neuronal autoantibodies in focal epilepsy with or without mesial temporal sclerosis <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study was designed to investigate the difference in the prevalence of neuronal autoantibodies in patients diagnosed with established temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) of unknown cause with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) and patients with TLE without MTS.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>In an observational cohort study design, we included thirty-three consecutive adult patients and divided them into two groups with and without MTS. We evaluated anti-neuronal and nuclear antibodies with immunofluorescence (IF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>From the thirty-three consecutive patients with epilepsy 17 (51.1%) had MTS of which 12 had unilateral and 5 had bilateral MTS. No significant difference was detected between seropositive and seronegative patients in MTS versus non-MTS groups. The studied autoantibodies were present in 16 patients, including gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA-R) antibodies being the most common in 11 (33.3%), followed by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) in 2 (6.1%), glutamic acid decarboxylase receptor (GAD-R) in 1 (3.0%), anti-phospholipid (APL) antibody in 1 (3.0%), CV2 in 1 (3.0%), Tr in 1 (3.0%), recoverin in 1 (3.0%), and double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) antibody in 1 (3.0%) of our patients with focal epilepsy. In both MTS and non-MTS groups, eight patients were positive for antibodies; four patients were positive for GABA in the MTS group and seven for GABA in the non-MTS group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Neuronal antibodies were presented in half of patients with focal epilepsy, GABA antibody being the leading one. No specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were found in the seropositive group. Our results suggest that screening for relevant antibodies may enable us to offer a possible treatment to this group of patients.</p> Behnaz Ansari Masoud Etemadifar Mohammadreza Najafi Maryam Nasri Rokhsareh Meamar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-19 2019-02-19 Migraine, dyspepsia and helicobacter pylori: Zeroing in on the culprit <p>-</p> Nayereh Akbari Ahmad Hormati Ehsan Sharifipour Seyed Amir Hejazi Fatemeh Jafari Seyed Ali Mousavi-Aghdas Samad EJ Golzari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-14 2019-03-14 Historical perspective of neurology in Iran <p>Iran is an ancient country, known as the cradle of civilization. The history of medicine in Iran goes back to the existence of a human in this country, divided into three periods: pre-Islamic, medieval, and modern period. There are records of different neurologic terms from the early period, while Zoroastrian (religious) prescription was mainly used until the foundation of the first medical center (Gondishapur). In the medieval period, with the conquest of Islam, prominent scientists were taught in Baghdad, like Avicenna, who referred to different neurologic diseases including stroke, paralysis, tremor, and meningitis. Several outstanding scientists developed the medical science of neurology in Iran, the work of whom has been used by other countries in the past and present. In the modern era, the Iranian Neurological Association was established with the efforts of Professor Jalal Barimani in 1991.</p> Shri Kant Mishra Hadi Mohammad Khanli Golnoush Akhlaghipour Ghazaleh Ahmadi-Jazi Shaweta Khosa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-17 2019-01-17 Changes in trend of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis <p>-</p> Banafsheh Shakibajahromi Nahid Ashjazadeh Anahid Safari Afshin Borhani-Haghighi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 Combined central and peripheral demyelination; a case report and literature review <p>-</p> Nouha Hamza Olfa Hdiji Nouha Farhat Sawsan Feki Salma Sakka Hanen Hajkacem Mariem Dammak Chokri Mhiri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-21 2019-02-21 Involvement of cerebellum in frontotemporal dementia; a case presentation using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (FDG-PET/MRI) <p>-</p> Samson Nivins Samuel Berkins ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-21 2019-02-21 The “coma sign”; an iatrogenic complication of neurological assessment <p>-</p> Brandon Lucke-Wold Christopher Robinson DO ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-21 2019-02-21