Atherogenic indices in stroke patients: A retrospective study
Background: Stroke makes a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although derangements in the lipid profile have been suggested as a risk factor for the development of stroke, various studies show inconsistent results on the association between lipid profile and stroke. A very few studies have commented on the status of lipid indices in stroke patients.
Methods: After obtaining ethical medical records of the study populations were analyzed, and data collected from patients admitted to the hospital with clinically diagnosed stroke and control group consisted of apparently healthy volunteers selected from the master health checkup department. Baseline characteristics and lipid profile parameters and the number of days of hospital stay for stroke patients were collected. Lipid indices were calculated using following formulae. Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) = log triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), Castelli’s Risk Index (CRI-I) = Total cholesterol/HDLc, CRI-II = Low density lipoprotein cholesterol/HDLc, atherogenic coefficient
(AC) = (Total cholesterol−HDLc)/HDLc, and
non-HDLc (NHC) = Total cholesterol–HDL.
Results: The study included 620 participants of which 290 were stroke patients and 330 healthy volunteers. 61% of stroke patients were hypertensives and 38% were diabetics 28% were both diabetic and hypertensives. In this study, the lipid parameters and the indices were significantly higher in stroke patients than the control group. Three indices, namely, CRI-I, AC, and NHC were found to be contributing to the risk of stroke significantly. There was no statistically significant correlation between the duration of hospital stay and lipid indices or individual parameters of
Conclusion: In this study, the atherogenic lipid indices were significantly higher in stroke patients compared to controls.
2. Prasad K, Singhal KK. Stroke in young:an Indian perspective. Neurol India 2010;58(3): 343-50.
3. Goldstein LB, Adams R, Becker K,Furberg CD, Gorelick PB, Hademenos G,et al. Primary prevention of ischemic
stroke: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association.
Circulation 2001; 103(1): 163-82.
4. Dobiasova M. Atherogenic index of plasma [log(triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol)]:theoretical and practical implications. Clin Chem 2004; 50(7): 1113-5.
5. Stampfer MJ, Sacks FM, Salvini S,Willett WC, Hennekens CH. A prospective study of cholesterol,apolipoproteins, and the risk of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1991; 325(6): 373-81.
6. Wu J, Chen S, Liu L, Gao X, Zhou Y,Wang C, et al. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol vs low-density
lipoprotein cholesterol as a risk factor for ischemic stroke: a result from the Kailuan study. Neurol Res 2013; 35(5): 505-11.
7. Kinosian B, Glick H, Garland G.Cholesterol and coronary heart disease:predicting risks by levels and ratios. Ann
Intern Med 1994; 121(9): 641-7.
8. Bhardwaj S, Bhattacharjee J, Bhatnagar MK, Tyagi S. Atherogenic index of plasma,castelli risk index and atherogenic
coefficient-new parameters in assessing cardiovascular risk. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2013; 3(3): 359-64.
9. Togha M, Gheini MR, Ahmadi B,Khashaiar P, Razeghi S. Lipid profile in cerebrovascular accidents. Iran J Neurol
2011; 10(1-2): 1-4.
10. Sacco RL. Newer risk factors for stroke. Neurology 2001; 57(5 Suppl 2): S31-S34.
11. Shahar E, Chambless LE, Rosamond WD, Boland LL, Ballantyne CM, McGovern PG, et al. Plasma lipid profile and incident ischemic stroke: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Stroke2003; 34(3): 623-31.
12. Bowman TS, Sesso HD, Ma J, Kurth T,Kase CS, Stampfer MJ, et al. Cholesterol and the risk of ischemic stroke. Stroke
2003; 34(12): 2930-4.
13. Park JH, Lee J, Ovbiagele B. Nontraditional serum lipid variables and recurrent stroke risk. Stroke 2014; 45(11):
14. Guo X, Li Z, Sun G, Guo L, Zheng L, Yu S, et al. Comparison of four nontraditional lipid profiles in relation to ischemic stroke among hypertensive Chinese population. Int J Cardiol 2015; 201: 123-5.
15. Zhang Y, Tuomilehto J, Jousilahti P,Wang Y, Antikainen R, Hu G. Total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and
stroke risk. Stroke 2012; 43(7): 1768-74.
16. Wu J, Chen S, Zhou Y, Wang C, Wang A, Zhang Q, et al. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on the risks of
stroke: a result from the Kailuan study. PLoS One 2013; 8(9): e74634.
17. Patil R, Raghuwanshi U. Derangement of lipid profile in stroke patients. Biomed Pharmacol J 2009; 2(2): 357-62.