Historical perspective of neurology in Iran
Iran is an ancient country, known as the cradle of civilization. The history of medicine in Iran goes back to the existence of a human in this country, divided into three periods: pre-Islamic, medieval, and modern period. There are records of different neurologic terms from the early period, while Zoroastrian (religious) prescription was mainly used until the foundation of the first medical center (Gondishapur). In the medieval period, with the conquest of Islam, prominent scientists were taught in Baghdad, like Avicenna, who referred to different neurologic diseases including stroke, paralysis, tremor, and meningitis. Several outstanding scientists developed the medical science of neurology in Iran, the work of whom has been used by other countries in the past and present. In the modern era, the Iranian Neurological Association was established with the efforts of Professor Jalal Barimani in 1991.
2. Barthold VV. An historical geography of Iran. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 2014.
3. Kashani-Sabet F. Frontier Fictions: Shaping the Iranian Nation, 1804-1946. London, UK: I.B.Tauris; 2000.
4. Curtis VS, Stewart S. Birth of the Persian Empire: The Idea of Iran. London, UK: I.B.Tauris; 2005.
5. Efthymiou-Egleton I. "Wellness": A New Word for Ancient Ideas [Online]. [cited 2017]; Available from: URL: https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=Oso6DwAAQBAJ&gl=us
6. Amr SS, Tbakhi A. Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Zakariya Al Razi (Rhazes): philosopher, physician and alchemist. Ann Saudi Med 2007; 27(4): 305-7.
7. Al-Ibri I. Brief history Ad-Dual Li Ibn Al-Ibri. Beirut, Lebanon: Dar El-Machreq, 1992. [In Arabic].
8. Amann R, Peskar BA. Anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin and sodium salicylate. Eur J Pharmacol 2002; 447(1): 1-9.
9. Zargaran A, Mehdizadeh A, Zarshenas MM, Mohagheghzadeh A. Avicenna (980-1037 AD). J Neurol 2012; 259(2): 389-90.
10. Behrouz R, Ourmazdi M, Reza'i P. Iran the cradle of science. Tehran, Iran: Iran Almanac; 1993. p. 115-8. [In Persian].
11. Calignano A, La Rana G, Giuffrida A, Piomelli D. Control of pain initiation by endogenous cannabinoids. Nature 1998; 394(6690): 277-81.
12. Elgood C. A Medical history of Persia and the eastern caliphate: From the earliest times until the year A.D. 1932. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 2010.
13. Gorji A, Khaleghi Ghadiri M. History of epilepsy in Medieval Iranian medicine. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2001; 25(5): 455-61.
14. Gorji A, Kohling R, Straub H, Hohling JM, Madeja M. Lowering the extracellular potassium concentration elicits epileptic activity in neocortical tissue of epileptic patients. Eur J Neurosci 2001; 13(3): 639-40.
15. Gorji A. Pharmacological treatment of headache using traditional Persian medicine. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2003; 24(7): 331-4.
16. Broumand B. Transplantation activities in Iran. Exp Clin Transplant 2005; 3(1): 333-7.
17. Lee Gordon B. Medicine throughout antiquity. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Co; 1949.
18. Browne EG. Islamic medicine: Fitzpatrick lectures delivered at the Royal College of Physicians in 1919-1920. New Delhi, India: Goodword Books; 2008.
19. Bodjnordi KM. The Great Islamic Encyclopedia. Tehran, Iran: Foundation of Islamic Encyclopedia; 1996. [In Persian].
20. Al-Akhawyni Bokhari AB, Matini J. Hidayat al-Muta`allemin Fi al-Tibb. Mashhad, Iran: Ferdowsi University of Mashhad; 1965. [In Persian].
21. Afshar A. The Westminster Medical College and Hospital in Urmia, Iran, 1879-1915. Arch Iran Med 2017; 20(12): 760-6.
22. Bayan L, Modarres Mousavi SM, Gorji A. History of neurological disorders in Persian medicine. Res Hist Med 2013; 2(4): 115-28. [In Persian].
23. Ebrahimnejad H. Religion and medicine in Iran: from relationship to dissociation. Hist Sci 2002; 40(127 Pt 1): 91-112.
24. Nayernouri T. A brief history of ancient Iranian medicine. Arch Iran Med 2015; 18(8): 549-51.
25. Filliozat J. The classical doctrine of Indian medicine: Its origenes and greek parallels. Paris, France: French School of Extreme-East; 1975. [In French].
26. Goodrich JT. History of spine surgery in the ancient and medieval worlds. Neurosurg Focus 2004; 16(1): E2.
27. Nayernouri T. Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as medical symbols; part II. Simurgh. Arch Iran Med 2010; 13(3): 255-61.
28. Shoja MM, Tubbs RS. The history of anatomy in Persia. J Anat 2007; 210(4): 359-78.
29. Cultural Heritage News Agency (CHN). Burnt City woman’s face reconstructed [Online]. [cited 2010]; Available from: URL: https://web.archive.org/web/20120223141500/http://www.chnpress.com/news/?Section=2&id=10794
30. Moghadasi AN. Artificial eye in burnt city and theoretical understanding of how vision works. Iran J Public Health 2014; 43(11): 1595-6.
31. Gharravi M, Orazizadeh M, Hashemitabar M, Ansari-Asl K, Banoni S, Alifard A, et al. Status of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in Iran and related advanced tools: Bioreactors and scaffolds. J Biomed Sci Eng 2012; 5(4): 18517.
32. Seyed Sajjadi SM. First evidences on prehistoric surgery in Iran. Tourism Journal 2008; 7: 11-22.
33. University of Gundi-Shapur first in the world [Online]. [cited 2017]; Available from: URL: https://persiadigest.com/University-of-Gundi-Shapur-first-in-the-world
34. Azizi MH. Gondishapur School of Medicine: The most important medical center in antiquity. Arch Iran Med 2008; 11(1): 116-9.
35. Pourahmad J. History of medical sciences in Iran. Iran J Pharm Res 2010; 7(2): 93-9.
36. Modanlou HD. A tribute to Zakariya Razi. Arch Iran Med 2008; 11(6): 673-7.
37. Rhazes Web. About Rhazes [Online]. [cited 2001]; Available from: URL: http://www.hcs.harvard.edu/rhazes-web/?page_id=219
38. The Basic of Philosophy [Online]. [cited 2019]; Available from: URL: https://www.philosophybasics.com/philosophers_avicenna.html. 2019
39. Mirzania M, Ghavamzadeh A, Asvadi Kermani I, Ashrafi F, Allahyari A, Rostami N, et al. Medical oncology, history and its future in Iran. Arch Iran Med 2015; 18(11): 799-805.
40. Azizi MH, Bahadori M, Dabiri S, Shamsi Meymandi S, Azizi F. A History of Leishmaniasis in Iran from 19th Century Onward. Arch Iran Med 2016; 19(2): 153-62.
41. Sajadi MM, Sajadi MR, Tabatabaie SM. The history of facial palsy and spasm: Hippocrates to Razi. Neurology 2011; 77(2): 174-8.
42. Keskinbora K, Keskinbora K. A systematic review of Ibn Sina's (Avicenna) studies: Reflections on anatomy. Eur J Anat 2016; 20(1): 99-105.
43. Ekhtiar M. Nasir al-Din Shah and the Dar al-Funun: The evolution of an institution-163. Iranian Studies 2001; 34(1/4): 153-63.
44. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Tehran University of Medical Sciences [Online]. [cited 2019]; Available from: URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tehran_University_of_Medical_Sciences&oldid=879351021
45. Scurlock JA, Andersen B. Diagnoses in Assyrian and Babylonian medicine: Ancient sources, translations, and modern medical analyses. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press; 2005.
46. Zargaran A, Zarshenas MM, Karimi A, Yarmohammadi H, Borhani-Haghighi A. Management of stroke as described by Ibn Sina (Avicenna) in the Canon of Medicine. Int J Cardiol 2013; 169(4): 233-7.
47. Zargaran A, Borhani-Haghighi A, Faridi P, Daneshamouz S, Mohagheghzadeh A. A review on the management of migraine in the Avicenna's Canon of Medicine. Neurol Sci 2016; 37(3): 471-8.
48. Hamedi A, Zarshenas MM, Sohrabpour M, Zargaran A. Herbal medicinal oils in traditional Persian medicine. Pharm Biol 2013; 51(9): 1208-18.
49. Gorji A, Khaleghi Ghadiri M. History of headache in medieval Persian medicine. Lancet Neurol 2002; 1(8): 510-5.
50. Amr SS, Tbakhi A. Ibn Sina (Avicenna): The prince of physicians. Ann Saudi Med 2007; 27(2): 134-5.
51. Tibi S. Al-Razi and Islamic medicine in the 9th century. J R Soc Med 2006; 99(4): 206-7.
52. Aciduman A, Belen D. Hydrocephalus and its management in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine. J Neurosurg 2007; 106(6 Suppl): 513-6.
53. Aciduman A, Belen D, Simsek S. Management of spinal disorders and trauma in Avicenna's Canon of medicine. Neurosurgery 2006; 59(2): 397-403.
54. Ghaffari F, Naseri M, Movahhed M, Zargaran A. Spinal Traumas and their Treatments According to Avicenna's Canon of Medicine. World Neurosurg 2015; 84(1): 173-7.
55. Bonakdarian M. Iranian Studies in the United Kingdom in the Twentieth Century. Iranian Studies 2010; 43(2): 265-93.
56. Azizi MH, Azizi F. Government-sponsored Iranian medical students abroad (1811-1935). Iranian Studies 2010; 43(3): 349-63.
57. Azizi MH. Physicians in the first academy of Iran (1935-1953). Middle East J Dig Dis 2012; 4(1): 60-7.
58. Wikipedia the free encyclopedia. Chehrazi E [Online]. [cited 2019]; Available from: URL: https://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%87%DB%8C%D9%85_%DA%86%D9%87%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%B2%DB%8C
59. Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Department of Neurology [Online]. [cited 2019]; Available from: URL: http://gsia.tums.ac.ir/en/page/17378/Department-of-Neurology
60. Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Primates/Dr. Ebrahim Chahrazi, Professor of Brain & Pain (Nerves) [Online]. [cited 2015]; Available from: URL: http://pr.tums.ac.ir/?fkeyid=&siteid=1&pageid=345&newsview=53128
61. Saberi-Firoozi M, Mir-Madjlessi SH. Development of gastroenterology and hepatology in Iran: part I-training programs and the Iranian association of gastroenterology and hepatology. Arch Iran Med 2009; 12(4): 425-31.
62. Iranianpath. Biography of Dr. Jalal Barimani, the father of modern Iranian neurology and the founder of the Iranian Neuroscience and Clinical Neurophysiology Society [Online]. [cited 2018]; Available from: URL: http://iranianpath.com/celebrities/medical/_7751.html
63. Iranian Neurological Association. Iranian Neurological Association, History and Introduction [Online] [cited 2019]; Available from: URL: http://www.iranneurology.com/en/about-us
64. Iranian Journal of Neurology [Online]. [cited 2019]; Available from: URL: http://ijnl.tums.ac.ir/index.php/ijnl
65. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Majid Samii [Online]. [cited 2019]; Available from: URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Majid_Samii&oldid=861122686
66. Rikhtegar R, Zarrintan S. Neurological letter from Iran. Pract Neurol 2014; 14(1): 50-3.
67. Lankarani KB, Alavian SM, Peymani P. Health in the Islamic Republic of Iran, challenges and progresses. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2013; 27(1): 42-9.
68. Ashrafi F, Mohammadhassanzadeh H, Shokraneh F, Valinejadi A, Johari K, Saemi N, et al. Iranians' contribution to world literature on neuroscience. Health Info Libr J 2012; 29(4): 323-32.
69. Hossein-Zadeh A, Soltanian-Zadeh H. Neuroimaging in Iran: A Review. Basic Clin Neurosci 2010; 2(1): 5-12.