Changing cerebral blood flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus after the tap test can predict clinical improvement.
Background: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is the most common movement disorder in pregnancy, which can be idiopathic or secondary. There are limited comparative data regarding these two forms of RLS. The aim of this study was to compare clinical features of idiopathic and secondary RLS in pregnant women.
Methods: Over a period of 3 months, 443 women who admitted for delivery in two clinical centers were screened for RLS using four diagnostic criteria of the international RLS study group. A total of 79 subjects diagnosed with RLS were consecutively enrolled in the present study. All of them were interviewed for medical history and complaints during pregnancy and responded to self-administer international RLS rating scale.
Results: Ten subjects (12.9%) out of 79 pregnant women with RLS had idiopathic form, and their mean age was significantly higher than patients with secondary RLS (30.6 ± 7.3 years vs. 26.4 ± 4.6 years, P = 0.0260). Compared with women with secondary RLS, sl ep duration in pregnancy was significantly decreased in idiopathic RLS group (P = 0.0460), whereas RLS severity score was similar in both groups. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of other sleep complaints, the positive family history of RLS, parity, duration of pregnancy, or frequency of cesarean section (P > 0.0500).
Conclusion: Idiopathic and secondary RLS have relatively similar courses and features during pregnancy. However, the idiopathic form may have more negative impact on sleep in pregnancy. Careful screening and effective treatment of idiopathic RLS before pregnancy is recommended to limit these disturbances.
2. Garcia-Borreguero D, Stillman P, Benes H, Buschmann H, Chaudhuri KR, Gonzalez Rodriguez VM, et al. Algorithms for the diagnosis and treatment of restless legs syndrome in primary care. BMC Neurol 2011; 11: 28.
3. Lee KA, Zaffke ME, McEnany G. Parity and sleep patterns during and after pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2000; 95(1): 14-8.
4. Manconi M, Govoni V, De Vito A, Economou NT, Cesnik E, Casetta I, et al. Restless legs syndrome and pregnancy. Neurology 2004; 63(6): 1065-9.
5. Kranick SM, Mowry EM, Colcher A, Horn S, Golbe LI. Movement disorders and pregnancy: a review of the literature. Mov Disord 2010; 25(6): 665-71.
6. Okun ML, Roberts JM, Marsland AL, Hall M. How disturbed sleep may be a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2009; 64(4): 273-80.
7. Walters AS, LeBrocq C, Dhar A, Hening W, Rosen R, Allen RP, et al. Validation of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group rating scale for restless legs syndrome. Sleep Med 2003; 4(2): 121-32.
8. To WK, Cheung RT. Neurological disorders in pregnancy. Hong Kong Med J 1997; 3(4): 400-8.
9. Haggstram FM, Bigolin AV, Assoni AS, Mezzomo C, Dos Santos IW, Correa MR, et al. Restless legs syndrome: study of prevalence among medical school faculty members. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2009; 67(3B): 822-6.
10. Uglane MT, Westad S, Backe B. Restless legs syndrome in pregnancy is a frequent disorder with a good prognosis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2011; 90(9): 1046-8.
11. Manconi M, Govoni V, De Vito A, Economou NT, Cesnik E, Mollica G, et al. Pregnancy as a risk factor for restless legs syndrome. Sleep Med 2004; 5(3): 305-8.
12. Lee KA, Zaffke ME, Baratte-Beebe K. Restless legs syndrome and sleep disturbance during pregnancy: the role of folate and iron. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2001; 10(4): 335-41.
13. Allen RP, Walters AS, Montplaisir J, Hening W, Myers A, Bell TJ, et al. Restless legs syndrome prevalence and impact: REST general population study. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165(11): 1286-92.