Epidemiology of stroke in Shiraz, Iran

  • Babak Daneshfard Research Center for Traditional Medicine and History of Medicine AND Essence of Parsiyan Wisdom Institute, Traditional Medicine and Medicinal Plant Incubator, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Sadegh Izadi Shiraz Neuroscience Research Center AND Department of Neurology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Abdolhamid Shariat Mail Shiraz Neuroscience Research Center AND Clinical Neurology Research Center AND Department of Neurology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Mohammad Amin Toudaji Shiraz Neuroscience Research Center AND Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Zahra Beyzavi Shiraz Neuroscience Research Center AND Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • Leila Niknam Shiraz Neuroscience Research Center AND Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Keywords:
Stroke, Cerebrovascular Disorders, Epidemiology, Shiraz

Abstract

Background: Stroke is the main cause of physical disability and the second leading cause of death worldwide. Two-thirds of all strokes occur in the developing countries. Despite being preventable, stroke is increasingly becoming a major health issue in these countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of stroke in Shiraz, Iran, one of the main referral centers in the southwestern part of Iran.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on all stroke patients admitted to the Namazee Hospital, affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, between August 2010 and January 2011. Patients’ demographic data, atherosclerosis risk factors, type of stroke, drug history, outcomes, and neurological signs were recorded. Chi-square test, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, t-test, and Mann–Whitney U-test were used to analyze the data.
Results: A total of 305 patients with stroke, aged 27-97 years (mean ± SD = 68.33 ± 12.99), 269 patients (88.2%) had ischemic stroke (IS) and 36 (11.8%) had hemorrhagic stroke (HS). 133 patients (43.6%) were men and 172 (56.4%) were women. 11.4% of the patients with IS and 40.6% with HS died during hospitalization, causing 12.1% death in all stroke patients [Odds ratio (Or) = 5.34, 95% Confidence intervals (CI) = 2.35-12.11]. Hypertension, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and recurrent stroke were the most common risk factors.
Conclusion: This study provides evidence that the epidemiology of stroke in the southwestern part of Iran may be similar to other places. However, it seems necessary and helpful to design a registration system for patients with stroke in Shiraz Namazee Hospital.

References

1. Azarpazhooh MR, Etemadi MM, Donnan GA, Mokhber N, Majdi MR, Ghayour- Mobarhan M, et al. Excessive incidence of stroke in Iran: evidence from the Mashhad Stroke Incidence Study (MSIS), a population-based study of stroke in the Middle East. Stroke 2010; 41(1): e3-e10.
2. Khaw KT. Epidemiology of stroke. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1996; 61(4): 333-8.
3. Kidd PM. Integrated brain restoration after ischemic stroke--medical management, risk factors, nutrients, and other interventions for managing inflammation and enhancing brain plasticity. Altern Med Rev 2009; 14(1): 14-35.
4. Tran J, Mirzaei M, Anderson L, Leeder SR. The epidemiology of stroke in the Middle East and North Africa. J Neurol Sci 2010; 295(1-2): 38-40.
5. Hachinski V, Donnan GA, Gorelick PB, Hacke W, Cramer SC, Kaste M, et al. Stroke: working toward a prioritized world agenda. Int J Stroke 2010; 5(4): 238-56.
6. Beal CC. Gender and stroke symptoms: a review of the current literature. J Neurosci Nurs 2010; 42(2): 80-7.
7. Johnson M, Bakas T. A review of barriers to thrombolytic therapy: implications for nursing care in the emergency department. J Neurosci Nurs 2010; 42(2): 88-94.
8. Reimers CD, Knapp G, Reimers AK. Exercise as stroke prophylaxis. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2009; 106(44): 715-21.
9. Estol CJ, Rojas MM. Stroke in Argentina. Int J Stroke 2010; 5(1): 35-9.
10. Murray V, Norrving B, Sandercock PA, Terent A, Wardlaw JM, Wester P. The molecular basis of thrombolysis and its clinical application in stroke. J Intern Med 2010; 267(2): 191-208.
11. Grysiewicz RA, Thomas K, Pandey DK. Epidemiology of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke: incidence, prevalence, mortality, and risk factors. Neurol Clin 2008; 26(4): 871- 95, vii.
12. Reeves MJ, Bushnell CD, Howard G, Gargano JW, Duncan PW, Lynch G, et al. Sex differences in stroke: epidemiology, clinical presentation, medical care, and outcomes. Lancet Neurol 2008; 7(10):915-26.
13. Romero JR, Morris J, Pikula A. Stroke prevention: modifying risk factors. Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis 2008; 2(4): 287-303.
14. Leoo T, Lindgren A, Petersson J, von AM. Risk factors and treatment at recurrent stroke onset: results from the Recurrent Stroke Quality and Epidemiology (RESQUE) Study. Cerebrovasc Dis 2008; 25(3): 254-60.
15. Gorelick PB, Ruland S. Cerebral vascular disease. Dis Mon 2010; 56(2): 39-100.
16. Appelros P, Stegmayr B, Terent A. Sex differences in stroke epidemiology: a systematic review. Stroke 2009; 40(4): 1082-90.
17. Fisher M. Stroke and TIA: epidemiology, risk factors, and the need for early intervention. Am J Manag Care 2008; 14(6 Suppl 2): S204-S211.
18. Hosseini AA, Sobhani-Rad D, Ghandehari K, Benamer HT. Frequency and clinical patterns of stroke in Iran - Systematic and critical review. BMC Neurol 2010; 10: 72.
19. Ghandehari K, Izadi-Mood Z. Khorasan stroke registry: analysis of 1392 stroke patients. Arch Iran Med 2007; 10(3): 327-34.
20. Ahangar AA, Ashraf Vaghefi SB, Ramaezani M. Epidemiological evaluation of stroke in Babol, northern Iran (2001- 2003). Eur Neurol 2005; 54(2): 93-7.
21. Oveisgharan S, Sarrafzadegan N, Shirani S, Hosseini S, Hasanzadeh P, Khosravi A. Stroke in Isfahan, Iran: hospital admission and 28-day case fatality rate. Cerebrovasc Dis 2007; 24(6): 495-9.
22. Nikseresht A, Azin HJ. Hypertension- related primary cerebral hemorrhage in patients referring to hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Journal of Medical Research 2004; 2(2): 40-7.
23. Borhani-Haghighi A, Safari R, Heydari ST, Soleimani F, Sharifian M, Yektaparast KS, et al. Hospital mortality associated with stroke in southern Iran. Iran J Med Sci 2013; 38(4): 314-20.
Published
2015-10-14
How to Cite
1.
Daneshfard B, Izadi S, Shariat A, Toudaji MA, Beyzavi Z, Niknam L. Epidemiology of stroke in Shiraz, Iran. Curr J Neurol. 14(3):158-163.
Section
Special Articles