Iranian Journal of Neurology <p align="center">&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Indexed in</strong>, <strong>PubMed, PubMed Central</strong>, Academic Keys, Cite Factor (Directory Indexing of International Research Journals), Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Directory of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI), Ebsco, Electronic Journals Library, Google Scholar, InfoBase Index, Islamic World Science Citation Center (ISC), LocatorPlus, Scientific Information Database (SID), Ulrichsweb Global Serials Directory, Universal Impact Factor, WorldCat.</p> en-US (IJNL Office) (TUMS Technical Support) Thu, 05 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0430 OJS 60 Validation of the Persian version of dysphagia in multiple sclerosis questionnaire for the assessment of dysphagia in multiple sclerosis <p><strong>Background:</strong> About one third of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience dysphagia. Dysphagia can cause complications such as malnutrition, lung infections, aspiration pneumonia and dehydration, thus it is very helpful to diagnose dysphagia as soon as possible. The aim in this study was to translate dysphagia in multiple sclerosis (DYMUS) questionnaire into Farsi and and validate it.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Forward-backward method was used to translate original English version of DYMUS into farsi, and then the questionnaire (one for each patient) was filled in through asking questions from 200 patients with MS by a speech and language pathologist. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the construct validity. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the DYMUS were evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> CFA showed that a two-factor model of DYMUS including “dysphagia for solid” and “dysphagia for liquid” fitted the data well [relative chi-square [χ<sup>2</sup>/degree of freedom (df) = 1.55, CFI = 0.967, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.957, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.053, and weighted root mean square residual (WRMR) = 0.874]. The Cronbach’s alpha for total score and liquid and solid subscales were 0.776, 0.557, and 0.725, respectively. The DYMUS showed adequate test-retest reliability for the total and subscales (ICC: 0.880-0.956). Moreover, this study has shown a significant relationship between DYMUS score and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, disease duration, type of MS, and self-reported dysphagia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The Persian version of DYMUS is a reliable and valid tool to screen dysphagia among patients with MS.</p> Zahra Jafari, Mohammad Rahim Shahbodaghi, Saman Maroufizadeh, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 27 Oct 2018 12:42:08 +0330 Polymorphisms of serotonin transporter gene and psychological status in patients with multiple sclerosis <p><strong>Background:</strong> Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common neuroinflammatory disease in young adults. Anxiety and depression may predispose individuals to MS and flare-ups. Serotonin transmission is modified in some brain regions of patients with MS, and these changes may contribute to their psychiatric abnormalities. We studied the frequencies of common polymorphisms of the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) gene in patients with MS according to their psychological status.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The 5-HTTLPR, rs25531, and STin2VNTR polymorphisms of the SERT gene were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods in 100 patients with MS and 100 healthy controls.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were no remarkable differences in SERT gene polymorphisms between patients with MS and healthy controls. Unlike the control group, 41% of the patients showed some degree of depression based on Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), but no association was observed between SERT gene polymorphisms after the patients were stratified by depression status.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In addition to SERT gene polymorphisms, modulation of serotonin at the synapses may also be regulated by genetic variations in tryptophan hydroxylase type 2 and serotonin receptors. Further studies with functional brain imaging of the serotonergic system in patients with MS can provide information on the role of serotonin in this disease.</p> Shirin Farjadian, Bahareh Fakhraei, Zahra Niknam, Mahboubeh Nasiri, Aslan Azad, Mojtaba Farjam, Alireza Nikseresht ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0430 The protective role of TBX21-1514T>C polymorphism in susceptibility to multiple sclerosis <p><strong>Background:</strong> As a T-cell mediated disease, multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis might be associated with the immune system and its involved genes. TBX21, which encodes T-bet transcription factor, is a critical regulator of the commitment to the Th1 lineage and Interferon gamma (IFNγ) production. Investigation of the association of -1514T &gt; C polymorphism located upstream of TBX21 gene with MS susceptibility is reasonable due to its demonstrated significant association with some other immune-mediated diseases.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> We analyzed the genotype frequencies of -1514T &gt; C polymorphism between 248 Iranian patients with MS and 163 matched healthy controls. By applying polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP)- technique, the single-strand conformation patterns of the amplicons were compared and sequenced.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Strong association between the wild -1514T allele and MS susceptibility was found with the allelic frequency of 99.6% in patients vs. 95.1% in controls (P = 0.002), and the CC genotype frequency of the TBX21 polymorphism (-1514T &gt; C) reported potential protective effect against the disease (P = 0.014).</p> <p class="a"><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The TBX21-1514T &gt; C polymorphism confers possible protective effect on MS in Iranian population. Further comprehensive studies in different settings are required to clarify the exact role of TBX21 gene in MS disease.</p> Fatemeh Akbarian, Mitra Ataei, Zivar Salehi, Masoud Nabavi, Mohammad Hossein Sanati ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 04 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Cognitive function, depression, and quality of life in patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms <p><strong>Background:</strong> Neuropsychiatric dysfunction is one of the most common complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive function, depression, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with aSAH.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In this study, we prospectively enrolled patients with SAH due to rupture of anterior circulation aneurysms who referred to Ghaem hospital, Mashhad, Iran, and who had good function outcome [modified Rankin scale (mRS) &gt; 2]. They underwent microsurgery or endovascular treatment. Cognitive function, depression, and QOL were evaluated 6 months after surgery with standard psychiatric examinations, including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for cognitive function, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) for depression, and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) for QOL. Risk factors for cognitive dysfunction were assessed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Fifty-three patients were entered the study. The mean of age was 50.9 ± 13.6 years. QOL and its components were affected in most patients. Fifty-five percent of patients suffered from depression. Cognitive impairment was found in 57% of patients. Older patients experienced more cognitive impairment (P &lt; 0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Neuropsychological sequels are common in patients with aSAH, even if they classified as good functional outcome (mRS &gt; 2). These complications could be found with appropriate neuropsychological evaluation of these patients to be managed as soon as possible.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Samira Zabihyan, Seyed Javad Mousavi-Bayegi, Humain Baharvahdat, Farhad Faridhosseini, Payam Sasannejad, Maryam Salehi, Maryam Boroumand, Zahra Hatefipour ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Pegylated versus non-pegylated interferon beta 1a in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: A cost-effectiveness analysis <p><strong>Background:</strong> Pegylated (PEG) interferon beta 1a has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) as an alternative to interferon beta 1a for multiple sclerosis (MS). Due to its higher price, this study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of PEG-interferon beta 1-a compared with interferon beta 1a from an Iranian payer perspective.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A Markov model was designed according to health states based on Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and one-month cycles over a 10-year time horizon. Direct medical and non-medical costs were included from a payer perspective.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated around 11111 US dollars (USD) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained for the <br> PEG-interferon versus interferon regimen [with currency rate of 29,000 Iranian Rial (IRR) to 1 USD in 2016].</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Considering the cost-effectiveness threshold in Iran [three times of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita or 15,945 USD], PEG-interferon beta 1-a could be considered as a cost effective treatment for Iranian patients with MS.<strong><br></strong></p> Amir Hashemi-Meshkini, Hedieh Sadat Zekri, Hasan Karimi-Yazdi, Pardis Zaboli, MohammadAli Sahraian, Shekoufeh Nikfar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 11 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Induction or aggravation of other immune-mediated disorders by disease-modifying therapy in treatment of multiple sclerosis <p>Interferon beta (IFN-β) and glatiramer acetate (GA) are the primary therapeutic immunomodulatory agents that interfere with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and the most commonly-used drugs as well. Induction or aggravation of other immune-mediated diseases has been reported following INF-β administration. We have reviewed the reported cases to notify the treating physicians about these rare adverse events. Although co-morbid autoimmune disorders have been reported in patients with MS, the pro-inflammatory role of disease-modifying drugs, especially INF-β, could affect and enhance this co-occurrence. Clinical or laboratory autoimmunity histories suggest the use of GA over INF-β as the treatment of choice.</p> Seyed Mohammad Baghbanian, Mohammad Ali Sahraian ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Oxidative stress-related biomarkers in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis <p>Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized with the loss of dopamine-producing neurons in a mid-brain. This loss is believed to be associated with number of environmental and genetic factors. Oxidative stress is found to be one of the factors responsible for the initiation and progression of PD. However, studies are still continued to confirm the connection and mechanism associated with oxidative stress and PD. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the association between oxidative stress markers and PD, and explore factors that may elucidate the contradictions in these results. As per Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline systematic literature search was carried out. Meta-analysis was carried out on pooled standardized mean differences with 95% confidence interval (CI) of patients with PD and controls using random effect model in comprehensive meta-analysis statistical software. Total 17 studies were included into which 25 oxidative stress markers were analyzed. The results revealed that oxidative stress markers [nitrate and nitric oxide (NO)] and antioxidant markers [total antioxidant status (TAS) and thiols] were not statistically different between the PD and control group (P &gt; 0.05). In case of oxidative stress markers, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG), and lipid hydro-peroxide (LPO) were found to be high in patients with PD as compared to controls with P &lt; 0.05, whereas lower levels of antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were noticed in the PD group as compared to controls (P &lt; 0.05 for all). From the results, it is concluded that patients with PD have high oxidative stress and lower antioxidant activity, and these studied biomarkers would be used as potential diagnostic tool to measure oxidative stress in patients with PD.</p> Zeba Khan, Sharique Athar Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Transcranial sonography in carriers of Gaucher disease <p><strong>Background:</strong> Glucocerebrosidase (GBA) mutation is the most common genetic risk factor in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Transcranial sonography (TCS) shows increased substantia nigra (SN) echogenicity in both idiopathic and genetic forms of PD. The goal of this study was to compare maximal area of SN hyperechogenicity (aSNmax) and diameter of third ventricle (DTV) between GBA mutation carriers and healthy controls.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Twenty-six carriers of GBA mutation and twenty-six healthy controls underwent TCS. The aSNmax and the DTV were measured. Mini-mental status examination (MMSE) and demographic data of the subjects were recorded, too.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Mean aSNmax in GBA mutation carriers was significantly higher (0.31 ± 0.06 cm<sup>2</sup>) than controls (0.16 ± 0.04 cm<sup>2</sup>). Moreover, DTV was significantly higher in GBA mutation carriers group (3.98 ± 0.90 vs 3.29 ± 0.56 cm).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Increased SN echogenicity and increased third ventricle diameter in GBA mutation carriers may be caused by alterations in iron metabolism with reference to their genetic status.</p> Fatemeh Omrani, Shahla Ansari-Damavandi, Babak Zamani, Zahra Omrani, Nahid Mohammadzade, Sadra Rohani, Mohammad Rohani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Hypothyroidism among patients with glioblastoma multiforme <p><strong>Background:</strong> Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are prone to various metabolic changes such as hypothyroidism. The present study was planned to assess the frequency of hypothyroidism in these patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Fifty-two patients with GBM were included. All of them had been treated by tumor resection followed by cranial irradiation. Thyroid function was assessed by measurement of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxin (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were 33 men and 19 women. The average age was 52.4 ± 12.8 years. Among these, <br> 32 (61%) had normal thyroid function test, whereas 4 (8%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, 5 (10%) had overt primary hypothyroidism, and 11 (21%) had secondary hypothyroidism. Sixteen patients (31%) needed thyroid hormone replacement therapy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Hypothyroidism is relatively prevalent in patients with treated GBM. Regular thyroid function test is advised to aid the introduction of appropriate hormone replacement therapy.</p> Morteza Faghih-Jouybari, Soheil Naderi, Sara Mashayekhi, Tahereh Padeganeh, Sina Abdollahzade ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0430 Neurobrucellosis with intramedullary spinal cord involvement: A case report <p>-</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vida Mohammadzadeh, Samira Akbarieh, Seyed Abdolreza Ghoreishi, Manizheh Jozpanahi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 11 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0430